In information and communication technology, gateways are able to translate or transform protocols, allowing different applications or networks to communicate. For example, a gateway can translate the IPX/SPX protocol by Novell into Internet Protocol or vice versa. Information may possibly also be lost in the process if not equally supported or transportable by the different protocols. Another example of a gateway is a system which translates e-mails into SMS and vice versa. Gateways are enabled on all seven layers or only individual layers of the OSI seven layer model. In addition to protocol conversion gateways, there also are gateways which convert different types of media. Gateways are often used to bridge different networks.